Thursday, March 19, 2020

How to Pronounce Deng Xiaoping

How to Pronounce Deng Xiaoping In this article, we will look at how to pronounce Deng Xiaoping (é‚“å ° Ã¥ ¹ ³), the name of one of the most important politicians in China during the previous century and one of the main forces behind Chinas economic development. Below, I will first give you a quick and dirty way if you just want to have a rough idea of how to pronounce the name. Then I’ll go through more detailed description, including the analysis of common learner errors. Pronouncing Deng Xiaoping if You Don't Know Any Mandarin Chinese names usually consist of three syllables, with the first being the family name and the last two the personal name. There are exceptions to this rule, but it holds true in a vast majority of cases. Thus, there are three syllables we need to deal with. Deng - Pronounce as dang, but replace a with the e in theXiao - Pronounce as sh plus yow- in yowlPing - Pronounce as ping If you want to have a go at the tones, they are falling, low and rising respectively. Note: This pronunciation is not correct pronunciation in Mandarin. It represents my best effort to write the pronunciation using English words. To really get it right, you need to learn some new sounds (see below). How to Actually Pronounce Deng Xiaoping If you study Mandarin, you should never ever rely on English approximations like those above. Those are meant for people who dont intend to learn the language! You have to understand the orthography, i.e. how the letters relate to the sounds. There are many traps and pitfalls in Pinyin you have to be familiar with. Now, lets look at the three syllables in more detail, including common learner errors: Dà ¨ng  (fourth tone): The first syllable rarely causes serious problems for speakers of English. The only things you should pay attention to is the initial, which is unaspirated and unvoiced. The vowel sound is a relaxed central sound close to the schwa in English the.  Ã‚  XiÇŽo  (third tone): This syllable is the hardest of the three. The x sound is produced by putting the tongue tip just behind the lower teeth and then pronouncing an s, but slightly further back than a normal s. You can also try to say shhh as when telling someone to be quiet, but place your tongue tip behind the lower teeth. The final isnt all that difficult and sounds close to what I mentioned above (yowl minus the l).  Pà ­ng (second tone): This syllable is relatively close to the English word with the same spelling. It has slightly more aspiration on the p and sometimes have an added, light schwa (central vowel) between the i and the ng (this is optional). The are some variations for these sounds, but Deng Xiaoping (é‚“å ° Ã¥ ¹ ³)  can be written like this in IPA: [təŋ É•jÉ‘ÊŠ pÊ °iÅ‹] Conclusion Now you know how to pronounce Deng Xiaoping (é‚“å ° Ã¥ ¹ ³). Did you find it hard? If you’re learning Mandarin, dont worry; there arent that many sounds. Once you’ve ​learned the most common ones, learning to pronounce words (and names) will become much easier!

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

ACT Test Information Release Should You Order It

ACT Test Information Release Should You Order It SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If you’re hoping to find out more information about your ACT scores or use your test as a study aid, you should think about ordering Test Information Release. I’ll go through what’s included in TIR, why you should strongly consider ordering it, and how to order it for your test. What Is Test Information Release? Test Information Release is essentially an all-access guide to your ACT scores.You can order it during registration or up to three months after you take the test, and it costs $20. Here’s what you get for your money: A copy of the multiple choice test questions A list of your answers The answer key If you took the writing portion, you also get a copy of the essay prompt and essay scoring guidelines along with your essay scores You will also receive information about ordering a photocopy of your answer sheet (and essay, if you took the ACT with Writing) for an additional fee.Test Information Release is only offered for the December, April and June ACT test dates at national test centers. Unfortunately, on other dates there is no comparable service offered by the ACT, so if you want to review your scores in-depth you should stick to those test dates. Reasons to Order Test Information Release There are several reasons you might order TIR as a supplement to your regular score report, including its usefulness for future studying and its clarification of the mistakes you made on the test. Reason #1: It’s a Great Studying Tool! If you’re planning on taking the ACT more than once, Test Information Release is an excellent resource. It allows you toreview the test questions and analyze your mistakes to avoid repeating them next time you take the test.Focusing on the mistakes you made in a real test environment will increase the efficiency of your prep time. The ACT says on the order form for TIR that â€Å"you should not expect to receive [your TIR materials] before the registration deadline or in time to study for the next test date.†But if you’re not planning on taking the test on the very next date(or if you are but you think you might take it a third time later), TIR can be super useful as a study guide. Reason #2: You Got a Score You Didn’t Expect and Want to Review Your Answers in More Detail If you’re stumped by your ACT score, ordering Test Information Release can help you make sense of what happened.With full access to the questions, it’s more likely that you will remember why you made certain mistakes. If you believe an error was made in the scoring process and are considering going a step further and ordering Hand Scoring for the ACT, you should order TIR first.Hand Scoring means that a real human from the ACT will review your answers to see whether there was a mistake in the scantron scoring process.This is relatively expensive ($45 for multiple choice or essay, $90 for both), so you should make sure you have a good reason to do it. Test Information Release will either confirm or deny your suspicions about your score based on whether you remember answering questions the way it says you did on your score report. With TIR, you get to be your own ACT detective! Don't get too excited. How to Order Test Information Release As mentioned above, if you already know you want to order Test Information Release before you sign up for the ACT, you can order it along with your original registration (check the TIR box during online registration).You should receive your materials four weeks after your scores are released.If you order TIR after the test, your order has to be postmarked within three months of the test date.You must send the form and check via snail mail.Here is a link to the form. Mail the form, along with a check for $20 made out to ACT, to this address: ACT Test Information ReleasePO Box 4008Iowa City, IA 52243-4008 You should expect to receive your materials three to five weeks after you send in the order form.Remember, you can only order TIR if you test on official dates in December, April, or June at a national ACT test center. What's Next? Still not sure whether you should retake the ACT? Here's a quick guideto help you decide. Or are you just trying to find the right test date for your situation? Learn more about when you should take the ACT. Use this guide to figure out your target ACT score so you have a goal in mind for the next time you take the test! If you're looking for tips on specific sections, take a look at these articles on how to earn the best scores on each section of the test. Want to improve your ACT score by 4+ points? Download our free guide to the top 5 strategies you need in your prep to improve your ACT score dramatically.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Evelyn monologue Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Evelyn monologue - Coursework Example Am paying for all my deeds. I should be ashamed of my deeds. I let her down, I disregarded the fact that she is now a grown up and not a child any more. But come to think of it, how did she discover? It must have been my mother. Yeah its my mother who told her about my past. How could she. Thanks to her I have lost the only thing I had in the world, no husband, my daughter is gone now, I have no one. I wish I had been more open to her as she grew up. This could not have happened at all. If only I had let in on the truth, things could have been easier for her to handle. I can only imagine the shock she had when she finally heard the truth. If I had worked hard to build a relationship with Faith, if only I was a good mother. I regret the times I did not come home until late at night. I should have made more time for her, to talk to her to share her fears and let her see the world through my eyes. I should have known one day this would happen and I would not have a second chance at doing these things. I should have given my mother so much freedom to talk to my daughter, Faith; look where it has put all of us. I remember my childhood with tears I never had enough time with my parents. They were ever out working; making sure we had a roof over our head and food on our table. My perception of the world was through my friends. Who used to mock me for being Jewish. I heard that part of my life for my daughter, with the aim of protecting her. I did not want her to be mocked by other children, the way it happened to me. No one would want their children to experience prejudicism that is why I did my best at keep that side of me away from my daughter, I thought the less that she knew the better it would have been for her. After having spent so little time with my mother during my childhood, I decided to let her move in with me so we could at least try to catch up. However, this was never to be, we are like strangers. All she does is to meddle in my

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Murder Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Murder - Essay Example However, it is a fact in criminal law, that the â€Å"criminal intent† or the â€Å"mens rea† of the offender to be convicted for the commission of any of the crimes under the Code requires a different degree of culpability which is dependent on the nature of the crime. Hence, the elements of these two crimes are to be treated differently. The issue that presented before us now that needs to be resolved is: The Mens rea for murder is too narrow in certain respects and too wide in others. The fault element for involuntary manslaughter is simply too wide. To differentiate these two crimes, first thing that needs to be done is to identify the elements for the commission of each of the crimes. We start with the crime of Murder. Alan W. Norrie has reported that for the crime of murder, the case of R. V. Woolin 1 should be highlighted as the basis of defining the intention of the accused. â€Å"In this case, the House has rejected the conclusion of the Court of Appeal that f oresight of a substantial risk of death or serious bodily harm could in certain circumstances be an â€Å"alternative mens rea† that can quality to intention of the accused†. While in the case of R. V. ... However, there exists a conflict in the Woolin case which leaves the test for the criminal intention too specific. In the event that in the future a crime of murder is committed, the victim or his family shall be prejudiced by the conviction of the criminal to a lesser offence, carrying with it a lesser penalty because of non-compliance with the attendant circumstances as stated in the Woolin case, to make him liable for murder. Thus, it gives the criminal the privilege to demand for a lesser penalty and escape a portion of the imprisonment. Moreover, there are two issues which are left unanswered by the Woolin case, which concern the moral basis for convicting a criminal for murder. In one, the foresight of virtual certainty may be regarded as morally under-inclusive, while in the other, it is over-inclusive. These problems, relating to issues of good and bad motive, originated from the unstable moral core at the heart of mens rea, which the dominant subjectivist approach ignores at its peril.5 The principle laid down by Woolin case caused quite a stir because foreseeability and intention are the elements used to prove the degree of culpability of the offender. The terms â€Å"direct† and â€Å"indirect intention† are given their conservative meanings of â€Å"purpose, aim or object† and â€Å"necessary means to an end or side-effect foreseen as virtually certain to occur whether desired or not†. The argument of Norrie is that in the â€Å"process of legal and moral judgment in the criminal law, these terms cannot be fully separated from broader issues of â€Å"motive† or â€Å"ulterior intention†, understood as the moral backdrop to the intentions that are formed, and generally seen as irrelevant to culpability†6. Therefore, if the

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Factors Affecting Buildability of Building Designs

Factors Affecting Buildability of Building Designs Buildability is increasingly become a major requirement in building construction practice. The aim of buildability is use to improve the efficiency of overall building process by developing construction sensitive designs. Nowadays, in Malaysia construction industry, there have facing a lot of problem that will impede the project to process smoothly. In this research, it will highlight what buildability is. Through this we can deeply understand what buildability is and how important it was in the construction industry. Moreover, in this research, we wish to find out and identify the buildability attributes in building design in Malaysia construction industry. There are many buildability attributes have affecting in the building design. If the constructions proceed without a good buildability management, it will bring many problems to the project. So in this research, besides that identifying the buildability attributes, we also wish to find out the importance level for each of these attributes. AIM This report are aim to find out the factors that affect buildability of building design in the Malaysian construction industry. OBJECTIVE In order to achieve the aim of the report, the following are the objectives of this research To study what is buildability and factors may affect it in building design To find out and identify the buildability attributes in building design in the Malaysian construction industry To measure the level of importance of different buildability attributes Research Methodology Literature Review The purpose of the literature review is given us to understanding what buildability in the construction industry is and how important it was. This research methodology may include definitions, ideas and practices of related topics. Besides that, we can study and review to the relevant books, journals, internet and etc., as known as secondary data, that related to the topic buildability. Through those review sources, the important point will be noted down and convenience for us to writing the literature review. The below are showing that the literature search that will be carried out:- Define the definition of buildability/ constructability Define the principle and concept of buildability/ constructability Determine the factor affecting buildability in building design in construction Determine the building attributes and the level of importance for each attribute Questionnaire Questionnaire is recommended as one of the research method, because it is easier for analyzing the data, economical and the hypothesis can be tested. Questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and/or in difference grouping for the purpose of gathering the information from respondents. To gain more information of this research, copies of questionnaire will be sent out to the construction companies and they are needed to express their opinions based on their experience. In this questionnaire, there are empty spaces provide for the respondents to giving their comment or suggest other building attributes which are not included. This questionnaire will target to the professionals such as architect, engineer, project manager, quantity surveyor and others in the contractor industry firm in Malaysia. From the research title, to determine the level of importance of buildability attributes in this research, the classification of the rating scales is used. The questionnaire is based on LIKERT SCALE format. It is a widely used instrument in measuring opinions. A likert item is simply a statement which the respondent is asked to evaluate according to any kind of subjective or objective criteria and generally the level of agreement or disagreement is measured. 5 point likert scale being used as it may produce slightly higher mean scores relative to the highest attainable score. This will be carried out in the final stage of research methodology. The results/ comments get from the respondents will be analyze and present in table or graph in order to provide a clearer view of overall research with writing up the contents of the dissertation. Besides this, analysis and interpretation would be done to gather all the information and data. DISSERTATION ORGANIZATION Chapter 1- Introduction Chapter 1 provides an introduction of the chapter that giving a brief about our proposal. In this chapter it includes introduction/ background, problem statement, aim, objectives, research methodology and working program for the dissertation. Chapter 2 Literature Review Through the review of literature/ articles related to our research topic the important point will be written in this chapter. Journals, books and information from the internet will be the source of the information or data to doing this buildability title dissertation. This chapter are aim to provide a main picture of the knowledge to us before the research is carried out. Chapter 3 Research Design and Methodology Questionnaire will be designed based on the objective and information that we want to find out. These questionnaires will be sent to different construction industry companies in Malaysia to collect data to conduct next step of dissertation. Chapter 4 Data Analysis and Results Discussions The collected information from the respondents will be evaluated and analyzed in table or graph with explanation. Chapter 5 Conclusions This chapter will conclude and recommend the overall results of the survey for further research. REFERENCES Crowther,.P. Design For Buildability and The Deconstruction Consequences, Design for Deconstruction and Materials Reuse, CIB Publication 272. Lam, P.T.I., Wong, F.K.W., Wong, F.W.H. 2007. Building features and site-specific factors affecting buildability in Hong Kong, Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, Vol 5, No 2. Mydin S.H., Zin R.M., Majid M.Z.A, Zahidi M. and Memon A.H. 2011. Buildability Attributes at Design Phase In Malaysian Building Construction, International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering Technology, Vol. 2, Issue 1. Wong, F.W.H, Lam, P.T.I, Chan, E.H.W. and Wong F.K.W. 2006. Factors Affecting Buildability of Building Design, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 33.7, pg 79 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW INTRODUCTION Buildability or constructability has a huge area of study and it was very important in a construction industry. The aim of these literature reviews are to study and highlight the area that the buildability attributes that may affect the building design in Malaysia construction industry. The first reviews that will focus in this chapter are definition of buildability, then coming up with the principles and concepts of buildability which have defined by different countries. Moreover, this review also focuses on the factors that may affect the buildability by identify the buildability attributes in building design. BUILDABILITY/CONSTRUCTABILITY DEFINITION OF BUILDABILITY Since the buildability is important in the construction industry, so there are many researchers from different countries has identified and defined buildability based on their studies. Based on the several articles study and resources, it found that the one of the widely definition that can be accepted which is define by the Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA), 1983, it stated that the buildability is the extent to which the design of a building facilitates ease of construction, subject to the overall requirements for the completed building (Wong, Lam, Chan and Wong, 2006B.p. 796). Besides the definition defined by CIRIA, there also have another definition which was founded with specific aim of improving the construction total quality management and the overall cost effectiveness and defined as constructability is the effective and timely integration of construction knowledge into the conceptual planning, design, construction and field operation of a project to achieve the overall project objectives in the best possible time and accuracy at the most cost-effective level by Construction Industry Institute (as known as CII) in year 1986 (Wong,, 2006B.p. 796). According to The Construction Industry in Australia (CIIA), Griffith and Sidwell (1997), has defined constructability as a system to integrate if construction knowledge in the project delivery process and balancing the various project and environmental constraints to achieve the project goals and building performance at the optimal level.(Wong,, 2006B.p. 796) Buildability Performance Research Group (BPRG), Chen and McGeorge (1994), defined buildability as the extent to which decisions, made during the whole building procurement process, ultimately facilitate the ease of construction and the quality of the completed project which buildability as a management to goals the project by recognize the factors affected the project (Eng, 2002.p. 117). In the other hand, there are other researchers have derived their own definitions based on their studying in buildability, such as:- Ferguson (1989); buildability was defined as the ability to construct a building efficiently economically and to agreed quality levels from its constituent materials, components and sub-assemblies (Wong,, 2006B.p. 796.) Williams (1982); buildability was defined as the most economic and efficient way of putting a building together.(Yang, 2004) Illingworth (1984); buildability was defined as a design and details which recognize the assembly process in achieving the desired result safety and at least cost to the client.(Yang, 2004) In year 1996, Moore has modified the definition defined by Illingworth as a design philosophy, which is recognizes and addresses the problems of the assembly process in achieving the construction of the design product, both safety and without resort to standardization or project level simplification.(Yang, 2004) Lueprasert (1996), constructability has defined as an important characteristic of structural design and site conditions of construction project which determines the level of complexity of executing the correlative structural assembly tasks.(Yang, 2004) Moreover, there are few researchers believed that constructability are significantly different with buildability. The differences between buildability and constructability are that buildability is a design-oriented concept but constructability is concern the whole project processing. But also have some researchers thought that there are no difference between buildability and constructability, the only is buildability is usually used in UK and constructability is often used in USA. (Yang, 2004) PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS OF BUILDABILITY According to Eng, (2002, p. 112), Buildability or Constructability has been used and evolved in the construction management in the late 1970s in United Kingdom, but its potential was not been fully exploited in construction industry at the time. Nowadays, buildability is increasingly become an integral part of the construction industry in many countries because it was a technique used to manage the construction process during the pre-construction stage. According to Low, (2008), buildability aim is to ensure the impacts of design details are recognized and considered in the earlier stage to reduce and/or prevent errors, delays and allows a cost control to the overall project others. Together with this, it will enhance the productivity and competitiveness of the industry. Moreover, Low study also stated the summarized of buildability principles that defined by some researchers such as Adams (1989), Ferguson (1989), Gray (1984), Griffith and Sidwell (1995), Tatum (1987) and other s as shown as below:- Efficiency and economical building production; to ensure efficient and economical production of a building, a logical organization of the sequence of assembly is necessary. The building organization must ensure continuity of construction work by having food management due to labors, machineries and materials delivery to achieve this principle (OConnor, 1985). Simplicity; this principles saying that the designers of the project must try to produce the simplest possible details compatible with the overall requirement for the building especially for the buildings group of elements (Ferguson, 1989; Bishop, 1985). Tolerance Level; the building design should recognize its tolerances which are normally attainable under site conditions. Different the materials and components used on site have its different composition and different jointing methods required. Therefore, practical level of tolerance adopted is necessary for the materials and components (Ferguson, 1989). Innovation; use any innovative ideas that can enhance the buildability of a project. The contractor should try to bring in new machineries or methods of working that can improve the productivity and allow construction process more efficiency. Before bring in the ideas, consideration of the level of skills available in industry is required. (Tatum, 1987). Proper scheduling; a good scheduling of works may allow construction proceed smoothly and right on track. The construction sequence should be practical to allow for a continuous flow of work to minimize delays of works (Gugel and Russell, 1994). Repetition and standardization; to reduce time consuming for constructions, the building elements should be design that encourages appropriate repetition and standardization, it may help to reduce cost, risk and error by using readily and standard items in construction (Adams, 1989; Ferguson, 1989). Participation and communication; project team members with relevant knowledge should be encourage to participate all level of construction. They can give their opinion and suggestion during early planning stage to reduce problem in future. Clear project information should be planned and coordinated to suit the construction process and facilitate the best possible communication and understanding on site (Fischer and Tatum, 1997). Avoid damage by subsequent works; the design should enable the works that carried out will not have risk of damage due to adjacent finished elements and with minimum requirements for special protection. This would reduce the need for return visits to site to repair damage. By doing few times checking to the completed works is better to reduce the project completion period (OConnor and Tucker, 1986). (Source: Low, 2008) McGeorge and Palmer (1997) have identified that buildability and constructability is the only management concept to have been designed and developed by the construction industry (Eng, 2002). This is because they think that the separation of designs and construction processes is unique to the construction industry. Eng also mentioned that the report in early 1960s, division between the process of design and construction was recognized as contributing to inefficiencies throughout the construction industry. (Eng, 2002).Emmerson (1962) has identified that insufficient documentation before tender, inefficient pre-contract design procedures and lacks of communication among the architects, consultants and contractors appointed are the factors that cause the problem occurred (Eng, 2002). Moreover, Banwell, (1964) suggested that the contractor who is too far from the design stage for his specialized knowledge can be participate in traditional contracting situation. (Eng, 2002.p. 111).In the o ther hand, Banwell report also highlighted that the complexities of modern construction and its requirement for specialized techniques demand that the design process and the construction stage should not be regarded as separate fields of activity. (Eng, 2002.p. 111) EVOLUTION OF BUILDABILITY/CONSTRUCTABILITY CONCEPT Through different groups of researchers, a number of stages in the evolution of the buildability or constructability concept are been identified and related to research efforts in different parts (Eng, 2002). According to Eng (2002) study, it shows the groups of researchers from different countries that have evaluated the evolution of buildability/constructability, which are: Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA); UK Construction Industry Institute (CII); USA Construction Industry Institute of Australia (CIIA) Building Performance Research Group (BPRG); University of Newcastle in Australia In the early research taken by CIRIA and UK researches, they regarded that buildability is problem that arose from the division between builders and designers; led researchers to focus on technical issue and site and construction planning (Gray, 1983; Adam, 1989; Ferguson, 1989). (Eng, 2002.p. 112) Besides that, Eng stated that most industry researchers and commentators are tended to see buildability as a function that is within the influence or control of the designer. Illingworth (1984) has suggested that the problem of buildability was become deteriorate because the designers and professional team are resented contractors involve and giving their opinions during the design stage.(Eng, 2002.p. 112) In addition, CII had used industry case studies to investigate the constructability problem in construction industry to allow the researchers to understanding the issues. This carried out the understanding of different stages of project life cycle which would relate to different issues in constructability (Eng, 2002). Furthermore, CIIA also used the case studies to enable a holistic perspective to be maintained. CIIA have proposed 12 principles would be relevant with different emphases due to the different project life cycle. For BPRG at University of Newcastle in Australia, they started with conceptualize the buildability problem as one that derived from a complex system and they proposed that the concepts of buildability is needed to recognize the factors in a project environment which may affected in the design process, construction process and the link between them (Eng, 2002). CIRIA RESEARCH IN BUILDABILITY The definition of buildability defined by CIRIA has shown at the above. Though that we know that CIRIA definition is focused between designs and construction; the factors has been implied which are solely within the influence or control of the design team those have a significant impact on the ease if construction of a project (Eng, 2002). The concept was recognized as an issue within an integrated design management context. A good buildability are formed based on a building design, structure or other which had been consider in the construction phase with emphasis on the method of construction, activities, sequence of works and way incorporated into the overall design (Eng, 2002). In additional, Eng study had showing the 16 guiding principles for achieving buildability which was identified and developed by Adams (1989), CIRIA, as below:- Investigate thoroughly Consider accessibility at the design stage Consider storage at design stage Design for early enclosure Design for minimum time below ground work Suitable materials use Consider for the local skill available Design for simple assembly Plan for maximize repetition and standardization Maximize the use of plant Allow for sensible tolerances Allow for a practical sequence of operations Plan to avoid change to work Avoid return visits on site; do it right in first time Safe construction design Clearly communication (Source: Adam, (Eng, 2002)) CONSTRUCTABILITY DEVELOPTMENT BY CII According to Eng (2002), has mentioned that CII used case studies to identify different of requirements for the planning stage (Tatum, 1986), engineering and procurement phases of a project (OConnor, 1986) and improvement of constructability that able to make during field operations (OConnor and Davis, 1988). In additional, they had identified and presented 6 concepts for the planning stage, 7 concepts for the design and procurement phase and 1 for field operations phase which showing below:- Conceptual Planning Stage Basic design approaches consider major construction methods Constructability programs are an integral part of project of project implementation plans Project planning requires construction knowledge and experience Early construction involvement in the development of contracting strategy Project schedules are construction sensitive Site layouts show efficient of construction Design and Procurement Stage Design for accessibility, materials and equipment Design for construction in adverse weather and remotes locations Design and procurement schedules are construction sensitive Design to enable efficient construction Design elements are standardize Construction and procurement efficiency are specifications developed Design for modularization to facilitate fabrication/transportation Field Operation Contractors use innovative methods (Source: Tatum; OConnor; OConnor and Davis; (Eng, 2002)) CONSTRUCTABILITY PRINCIPLES BY CIIA For CIIA, they have review to the work of CII, and some developed construction information within the Australian context (Eng, 2002). At the beginning, they are 17 principles are being identified and tested. In the other hand, more than twenty of the personnel who experienced in construction are given feedback due to this tested. Through the test, Constructability Principles File (CIIA, 1992) has shown 12 concepts of constructability to represent current best practice applicable over five projects life cycle stages, which are feasibility studies stage, conceptual design stage, details design stage, construction stage and post construction stage (Eng, 2002). The twelve principles espoused were:- PRINCIPLESÂ  DESCRIPTION Integration Constructability must be made an integral part of project plan. Construction Knowledge Project planning must actively involve construction knowledge and experience. Team Skills Project team must be appropriate for the project based on their experience, skills and etc. Corporate Objectives Project team understanding against clients corporate and project objective to improve constructability. Available Resources Technology use in design solution must be matched with the skills and resources available. External factors External factors might affect the cost and program of the project. Program of project Overall project program must be realistic and have the commitment of the project team. Construction Methodology Construction methodology must be considered in project design. Accessibility Constructability will be improved if accessibility is considered good in the design stage of project. Specifications Constructability improved when efficiency considered in specification development. Construction innovation Constructability improved when innovation techniques is used Feedback Post construction analysis is undertaken to allow constructability can be enhanced on future projects Table Principles by CIIA (Francis and Sidwell (Eng, 2002)) CONSTRUCTABILITY CONCEPTS BY MALAYSIAN RESEARCHER According to Nawi, Kamar, Lee, Hamid, Abdullah, Haron and Ariff (2009), stated that in Malaysia, the constructability and buildability concepts established by the Construction Industry Institute (CII) and other relevant literature by CIRIA, (1983); Tatum, (1987); Adams, (1989); CII, (1993) and etc, there are 23 constructability concepts were formulated and presented by Nima, (2001) which use them to utilize a study in relation to the engineered construction phases. There are 7 concepts for conceptual planning phase, 8 concepts for design and procurement phase and 8 concepts for field operation phases which as follows:- C1-C7 (Project constructability enhancement during conceptual planning phase) Concept C1 the project constructability program should be discussed and documented within the project execution plan, through the participation of all project team members. Concept C2 a project team that includes representatives of the owner, engineer and contractor should be formulated and maintained to take the constructability issue into consideration from the outset of the project and through all of its phases. Concept C3 individuals with current construction knowledge and experience should achieve the early project planning so that interference between design and construction can be avoided. Concept C4 the construction methods should be taken into consideration when choosing the type and the number of contracts required for executing the project. Concept C5 the master project schedule and the construction completion date should be construction-sensitive and should be assigned as early as possible. Concept C6 in order to accomplish the field operations easily and efficiently, major construction methods should be discussed and analyses in-depth as early as possible to direct the design according to these methods. Concept C7 site layout should be studies carefully so that construction, operation and maintenance proceed efficiently and avoid any interference between the operations performed during these phases. C8-C15 (Project constructability enhancement during design and procurement phases) Concept C8 design and procurement schedules should be dictated by construction sequence. Thus, the construction schedule must be discussed and developed prior to the design development and procurement schedule. Concept C9 advanced information technologies are important to any field including field of construction industry. The usage of those technologies could overcome the problem of fragmentation into specialized roles in this field, hence enhancing constructability. Concept C10 designs, with design simplification by designers and design review by qualified construction personnel must be configured to enable efficient construction. Concept C11 project elements should be standardized to an extent that will never affect the project cost negatively. Concept C12 the project technical specifications should be simplified and configured to achieve efficient construction without sacrificing the level or the efficiency of the project performance. Concept C13 the implementation of modularization and preassembly for project elements should be taken into consideration and studied carefully. Modularization and preassembly design should be prepared to facilitate fabrication, transportation and installation. Concept C14 project design should take into consideration the construction personnel, materials and equipment accessibility to the required position on-site. Concept C15 design should facilitate construction during adverse weather conditions. Great emphasis should be made to planning for the construction of the project under suitable weather conditions, but the designer must plan and take into consideration the project elements that could be prefabricated in workshops. C16-C23 (Project constructability enhancement during field operation phases) Concept C16 field task sequencing should be configured in order to minimize damages or rework of some project elements, minimize scaffolding needs, formwork used or congestion of construction personnel, material and equipment. Concept C17 innovation in temporary construction materials/systems, or implementing innovative ways of using available temporary construction materials/systems that have not been defined or limited by the design drawings and technical specifications will contribute positively to the enhancement of constructability. Concept C18 incorporating innovation of new methods in using off-the-shelf hand tools or modification of the available tools or introduction of a new hand tools that may reduce labour intensity, increase mobility, safety or accessibility will enhance constructability at the construction phase. Concept C19 introduction of innovative methods for using the available equipment or modification of the available equipment to increase their productivity will lead to a better constructability. Concept C20 in order to increase the productivity, reduce the need of scaffolding or improve the project constructability under adverse weather conditions, constructors should be encouraged to use any optional preassembly. Concept C21 constructability will be enhanced by encouraging the constructor to carry out innovation of temporary facilities. Concept C22 good contractors, based on quality and time, should be documented, so that contracts for future construction works would not be awarded based on low bits only, but by considering other project attributes. Concept C23 evaluation, documentation and feedback of the issues of the constructability concepts should be maintained throughout the project to be used in later projects as lessons learned. (Source: Nima el al, (Nawi,, 2009)) Although there are many researchers from different countries have identified and presented their own principles and concepts, but the points they covered are almost the same. Through those principles and concepts, it showing the ways to help the construction to reduce its project time, error, cost by having a good buildability on manage overall project. ASSESSMENT OF DESIGNS FOR BUILDABILITY According to CIRC and Chiang, has stated that the construction industries are continues to search out the ways to improve buildability, such as the use of prefabricated, standardized and modular components, as well as the adoption of alternative procurement methods (cited by Wong, Lam, Chan P.C. and Chan H.W., 2006), the Building and Construction Authority (BCA) in Singapore had introduced and published a Code of Practice on Buildabl

Friday, January 17, 2020

Elizabethan Poor Laws

?Life for the poor in Elizabethan England was very harsh. Unemployment and rapid price inflation increased causing many villagers to leave their homes and come to the towns to look for work. However, they often could not find employment and ended up begging in the streets. Elizabethan Poor Laws, enacted in 1601, were incredibly beneficial in uniting the community to provide care and nurture for the qualifying less fortunate. These laws set a critical foundation for Britain’s welfare system and established guidelines for the â€Å"deserving† and â€Å"undeserving† poor.I chose this topic because it vastly influenced our world today, not only physically, but morally. My extensive research was conducted mainly through internet resources. Thanks to online databases provided by the Public Library System I was able to find valuable primary sources such as newspaper articles. I was also able to find credible, scholarly summaries, documents, essays, and more on my topic, making it much more manageable to thoroughly educate myself and others.Gathering so much background knowledge also provided more validity to statements I concluded and overall information included in my presentation. I personally felt an exhibit would be the most tremendous in portraying the vast research I completed throughout the History Fair process through vibrant illustrations, documents, photos and more. The 1601 Elizabethan Poor Laws suitably fits the Rights and Responsibilities theme. Everyone had a share – rights and responsibilities, from the Justices of the Peace, to the substantial householders, even the poor themselves.The poor weren't just goldenly treated out of the blue. Only the â€Å"deserving† poor were assisted. â€Å"Deserving† – classified as the â€Å"Helpless poor† also known as old folk, or children of poor families and the â€Å"able-bodied poor†- people who could work, wanted to work, and attempted at earning a li ving. It was the responsibilities of the poor to remain determined and avoid indolence, sluggishness, and misdemeanor or else they would be classified under the more dangerous and itinerant group of â€Å"rogues and vagabonds†(beggars and stealers) vastly targeted by the government.Townsfolk were known to dislike beggars and treat them harshly. Their streets had become overcrowded and dirty, and the poor and beggars were accused of being scroungers and suspected of being criminals. It had then become a right, where two or more â€Å"substantial householders† were to be yearly nominated by the Justices of the Peace to serve as overseers of the poor in each parish.The overseers  were to raise â€Å"weekly or otherwise, by taxation of every inhabitant, such competent sums of money as they shall think fit,† however; one of the later complaints about the 1601 Act was that the basis of the law was that it rated land and buildings but not personal or movable wealth. Consequently it benefited the industrial and commercial groups in society who did not fall within the parameters of the legislation and so did not pay into the poor rates unless they also happened to own landed property.The 1601 Elizabethan Poor Law continued with additional variations and adjustments, for example the 1662 Settlement Act, Gilbert's Act (1782) and the Speenhamland system of 1795 — until the passing of the 1834 Poor Law Amendment Act which ultimately formed the basis of poor relief throughout the country for more than two centuries. It was a reasonable and unbiased system run for and administered by local people at a time when the population was undersized enough for everyone to know everyone else and his/her conditions and circumstances.Personally, the 1601 Elizabethan Poor Laws taught me that caring for the poor is a divine purpose in our community today, that it will remain a responsibility to the poor to guide our actions in international development to end ing poverty. This act recognized that well applied, targeted, and effective aid can and should be used to achieve progress on challenges such as health, education, and substantial living in our poverties. â€Å"The care of human life and happiness, and not their destruction, is the first and only object of a good government,† – Thomas Jefferson

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Essay about Job Discrimination - 1030 Words

In some way or another we have all experienced discrimination not only through race but also sex, a disability, religion and so on. How can we determine if discrimination is right in areas other than race? If we define discrimination from the Webster’s dictionary it can be the treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person or thing based on the group, class, or category to which that person belongs. In my opinion I would simply say that â€Å"you can’t judge a book by its cover† and that is what we tend to do when we face discrimination. The Federal Equal Opportunity Laws are the enforcers of such discriminations people face on a daily job. Whenever employees encounter a problem with discrimination†¦show more content†¦Many employers may feel that for older adults that they are not as useful as the younger generation and that allows the employer to reduce benefits. Next, would be the Equal Pay Act Discrimination w hich deals with sex discrimination dealing with the payment of wages or benefits; whereas a man a woman can perform the same job and employers are required to give them both equal pay. Finally, the Titles I and V of the Americans with Disabilities Act, under this act it deals with the Individual with a Disability meaning a physical or mental problems. Qualified Individuals with a Disability by this person is capable of performing skills that are required on the job. Just to give you some stats and this information comes from, it states that there are over 16 million Americans over 55 who are either working or seeking work. In this generation older workers are getting new jobs at an annual rate of 4.1 percent. Older Americans make up 10 percent of the workforce, but account for 22 percent of the nations job growth. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;When we looked at the EEO laws and saw examples of these we now have to understand who is covered under the laws, and if sued the proper procedures to go about the issue or complaint. The title VII and the ADA cover private employers, state and local governments, and education institutions that employ 15 or more people. For instance, the EPA covers employers who are covered by the federalShow MoreRelated The Great Recession of 2007: Job Discrimination in the United States1403 Words   |  6 Pageshigh that affects the value of the dollar. To cope, many people turn to welfare for government assistance. People who do not rely on unemployment benefit or government assistance must find a job to survive. When looking for a job, a person must be deemed as a qualified candidate and meet the requirements of the job. 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